One of the immediate challenges facing Niger’s President Muhamadou Issoufou, who won Sunday’s presidential run-off which was boycotted by the opposition, is to form a stable government.
International monitoring bodies have advised he negotiate with the opposition and other aggrieved citizens to ease the tense political situation.
Another challenge is the issue of insecurity, particularly from the Islamist Boko Haram insurgency on the border with Nigeria, and the need to secure borders with Mali and Libya, which both have active militant groups.
In a speech after his re-election, President Issoufou acknowledged some of these problems and the need for national unity.
Niger is currently part of a multi-national task force fighting Boko Haram in the Lake Chad region.
Poverty, unemployment, infrastructure and food security are also big issues that need attention in the uranium-rich nation.
Recently, the UN said about two million people would need urgent food aid this year as a result of drought.